Thursday, November 27, 2014

 Paintings in Museo Del Prado
Spanish Painting
World’s largest collections of Spanish painting has represented in the Museo del Prado. The number of total paintings is 4,800. Prado categorized this collection as Romanesque, Gothic and early renaissance painting, Baroque Painting,  El Greco  and renaissance Painting. Early Naturalism, Goya and 18th-century Painting and  19th-century Painting.
Frescoes, Franco-Gothic painting, International Gothic, great masterpieces of Hispano-Flemish painting, Renaissance paintings are represented there.
The most important artist of early Naturalism and  Renaissance Painting is   undoubtedly  El Greco . The Prado owns two works painted in Italy, namely The Annunciation and The Flight to Egypt.  Among others of  important artists the in this category who enriched Prado’s collection are Fernando Yáñez, as well as one of the best known works of this period, Juan de Flandes’, Ribalta, Maino and Herrera the Elder, Sánchez Cotán, an Juan van der Hamen .
The age of baroque painting is called golden age in Spanish painting history. In this  category 50 works of the iconic genius Velázquez is represented in Prado’s collection. Other great figure’s works can be in Prado’ gallery is Ribera, Murillo, Zurbarán, and Alonso Cano.
In 18th-century painting category Francisco de Goya is represented with his  140 paintings. A large group of still lifes by Luis Meléndez; small, cabinet paintings by Paret y Alcázar tapestry cartoons by the Bayeu brothers, other interesting paintings of Antonio Carnicero etc. are also presented in  this category.
Among 19th century painters works of Eugenio Lucas and Leonardo Alenza who are inspired and influenced by Goya,  collected for presentation. Other outstanding  historical  works ofJosé de Madrazo, ,Eduardo Rosales, Francisco Pradilla, Vicente López, landscape paintings  of Carlos de Haes and Pérez Villaamil noted works of Fortuny ,  Sorolla and others also collected in Prado.
Italian Painting
More than 1000 works of Italian painters are collected in Prado, many of which formally were in the royal collection. Works of  Fra Angelico, Mantegna, Antonello da Messina and Botticelli of 15th century , are presented in the Prado.
Among the16th century   Titian, Veronese, Tintoretto and the Bassano, Correggio, Parmigianino, Sebastiano del Piombo, Andrea del Sarto, etc  of various  school and trend are preresnt in Prado.
Caravaggio, Annibale Carracci, Annibale Carracci, of 17th century is well represented in the Museum large collection of paintings by the Neapolitan artist Luca Giordano
18th-century Italian landscapes and a number of paintings and Spanish royal family related event depictions are important collection of Prado.  Other 18th century painter’s creations such as works  of Battaglioli, Antonio Joli, of Grand Tour portraits by Batoni , extensive group of works by Corrado Giaquinto, works of  Giambattista Tiepolo also presented in the museum.

Flemish painting
In terms of quality and quantity Flemish school of painting, can be compared with Italian collection. It comprises more than 1,000 works belong 15th to 17th century. These paintings also came from royal collection.
Works of Robert Campin, the  initiator  the 15th-century Flemish style, Rogier van der Weyden, Dirk Bouts . Hans Memling, Gerard David, panel paintings by Hieronymous Bosch are well represented in the museum.
Among 16th-century Flemish painting, works of  Joachim Patinir  occupied  a remarkable place.
Notable works of  Marinus Reymerswaele, Jan Sanders van Hemessen, over 90 masterpieces by Rubens his  followers Van Dyck and Jordaens  are representing glorious  names of 17th-century Flemish painting in Prado.
50 paintings by David Teniers, most important genre painter,  paintings animal paintesr  Frans Snyders and Paul de Vos still life painters, Clara Peeters and Daniel Seghers are owned by Prado.
The most important genre painter of this school and period is David Teniers, of whom the Prado owns more than 50 paintings. Among animal painters particular attention should be paid to Frans Snyders and Paul de Vos, while Clara Peeters and Daniel Seghers are notable for their still lifes and the most notable paintings all are owned by the museum

French Painting
More than 300 paintings of the French school are represented in Prado museum. The painting are of 16th to early 19th century came from the royal collection. Though the collection is  incomplete,  works of some artists very remarkable. The names  of the painters are  Nicholas Poussin, Claude Loarraine of 17th century and   Michel-Ange Houasse, Jean Ranc ,  Louis-Michel van Loo, Watteau, Coypel and Rigaud of 18th century. Mythological and religious scenes and landscapes of Nicholas Pousin, a group of works with  youthful portraits by Michel-Ange Houasse and others are very impressive.

British Painting
Collection of British painting is not much reach in Prado Museum. Due to historical background of political conflict from 16th century to early 20th century , contact between aristocratic family was very limited. Although quantity is small a fine quality of works are available in Prado of 20th-century. Portrait  and other significant paintings by Thomas Lawance (John Fane, 10th Count of Westmoreland, Miss Martha Carr and A Lady from the Storer Family) and works  David Robert are very well represented in the museum. David was an important painter and associated with Spanish Romanticism. The name of his represented three significant  works are The Torre de Oro, Seville, The Castle of Alcalá de Guadaira and The Interior of the Mosque, Cordoba.

Dutch Painting
Almost 200 works of  the Dutch school  are available on Prado’s collection. These all paintings are of 17th century as these was  arrived in Spain in 17th -18th century. Here also the split occurred  for the hostile circumstances between two royal families
 Although paintings of the most  important artist like Vermeer and Frans Hals was absent, work of notable painter Rembrandt was represented there . His masterpiece  Judith at the Banquet of Holofernes, was purchased during the reign of Carlos III.
The Museum possesses various paintings by Matthias Stomer and Solomon de Bray, including The Incredulity of Saint Thomas and Judith and Holofernes, as well as still lifes by the most important artists of the Haarlem School: Pieter Claesz, Willem Claesz Heda and Jan Davidsz de Heem.
Dutch genre  and landscape paintings  by Philips Wouwerman ,  Adriaen van Otade,  Jan Both, Herman van Swanevelt and Jacob van Ruisdael are well  represented in museum.
Portrait ( Portrait of Petronella de Waert) by  Gerard Ter Borch and   animal painting (Dead Cockerel) by Gabriel Metsu are also collected by Prado.

German Painting
The German School of painting is also, represented very poorly in the Prado’s collection, although Holy Roman Empire and Spain have good relation during Habsburgs period. Works of some important artists are represented in the museum, which mostly came from the former royal collection. The artists are Albrecht,  Anton Rafael Mengs, Durer, Hans Baldung Grien, Lucas Cranach the Elder. Mengs paintings are the largest collection among the 18th-century German paintings collect by Prado.

Name of some important paintings are  :  Self-portrait, Adam, Eve,  Portrait of an Unidentified Man,  Harmony or The Three Graces , The Ages of Man and Death, Hunt in Honour of Carlos V at Torgau Castle , Hunt in Honour of Ferdinand I, King of the Romans, at Torgau Castle.

Wednesday, March 19, 2014

Dental care

We never know the worth of water till the well is dry. Some ill-fate and foolish persons do not feel the importance of tooth before they lose it. Not only for attractive smile, to maintain a good health and happy life, have we had to take care of our teeth. Without our teeth, it would be impossible for us to eat properly and without them our nutrition and overall health would suffer. Tooth health doesn’t just affect your mouth. It affects your entire body. Keeping your teeth and gums happy also means you are less prone to other illnesses and infections, and keeping your body happy and healthy means your mouth is less susceptible to disease. To maintain teeth health it is essential to brush regularly. Flossing between teeth, scraping tongue, going to dentist time to time for checking, and giving up some bad habits that affects teeth and mouth health are also important.
Dentists say that the minimum time you should spend brushing your teeth is 2 minutes twice a day. Here are some tips on how to brush properly:
Use an egg timer or play a favorite song while brushing your teeth to get used to brushing for a full 2 to 3 minutes. Some electronic toothbrushes have timers that let you know when 2 minutes are up.
Acts on Flossing
Brushing is important but it won't remove the plaque and particles of food between your teeth, under the gumline, or under braces. You'll need to floss these spaces at least once a day.
The type of floss you choose depends on how much space you have between your teeth. Dentists usually recommend unwaxed floss because it's thinner and easier to slide through small spaces. However, studies have shown that there is no major difference in the effectiveness based on the type of floss used.

Scraping Tongue

Believe it or not, this simple trick reduces oral bacteria and helps remove the gunk from the back of your mouth that causes halitosis.

Quit Tobacco

Using tobacco through smoking or chewing puts you at great risk for gum disease, recession, cavities, tooth discoloration and oral cancer. If you quit in 2013, your chances of losing your teeth will be drastically reduced.

Stay Away From Sugary Foods

You know you should stay away from sweets, as sugar is bacteria’s favorite fuel and it doesn’t do your body any good whatsoever. Since it’s nearly impossible to abstain completely, extra brushing after eating sugary foods can help you get fewer cavities.
Regular Exercise
It may be surprising that exercise can benefit your teeth and gums, but research has shown that exercise increases bone mass.
Exercise and a diet that includes lots of the necessary nutrients – like calcium and phosphorous – that support proper bone density will also keep your mouth happy. Make sure you also get a good dose of Vitamin D, which you can either take in through sunlight or with supplements.

Why Healthy Teeth Are Important

How does taking care of your teeth help with all those things? Taking care of your teeth helps prevent plaque , which is a clear film of bacteria that sticks to your teeth.

Eat Your Fruits and Vegetables

Eating well is essential for your dental health. A poor diet affects your entire body, including your gums and teeth. Protect your oral health in the new year by eating lots of crisp fruits and vegetables like carrots, apples and celery.

Wednesday, January 22, 2014

Robert Indiana at Whitney Museum

Born in New Castle of Indiana State in 1928, served in US Air Force  in early life for 3 years,  studied Painting and Sculpture in the US and Scotland, being a leading figure of American art world from 1960s, pronounced himself  “American Painter of sign”  - he is painter, sculptor and printmaker Robert Indiana . A major retrospective devoted to Robert’s work, was being presented in Whitney Museum of American Art at Madison Street, New York, ended on January 5, 2014. The exhibition, organized by Whitney curator Barbara Haskell, was started on September 24, 2013. It was on view in the Whitney's fourth floor Emily Fisher Landau Galleries, titled “Robert Indiana: Beyond LOVE”.
The retrospective rediscovered Indiana‘s works from 1955, the beginning of his accomplishment through 2001 when he made his ninth piece of American Dream series.  Robert Indiana is the forerunner in developing hard-edge painting, assemblage art and Pop art.

Robert was inclined with art and poetry from his younger life. But due to great economic depression his family was in very awkward condition that time. He has to change his home 21 times at the age  of 17. After passing matriculation he joined US Air Force and served there for 3 years. He studied at the Art Institute of Chicago and the Skowhegan School of Painting from 1949 to 53. He attained a scholarship from Edinburgh University of Scotland and studied at Edinburgh College of Art from 1953 to 54.
 Indiana returned America on 1954 and started living in the New York City.   In this time he created geometric abstract painting and vertical wood sculpture.  He created these wooden sculptures following the anthropomorphic stones of ancient Greece, and called them “herms”.
In the mid 20th century, abstract expressionism was most influential and it was the general trend of American artists. But Indiana joined in the Pop art movement, which opposed non-representational abstract expressionism.  Pop artists emerged with realistic approach and they focused on popular and consumer culture and commodity. Their themes derived from popular comic books, roadside advertisements, colorful cans of  Campbell’s soup etc. Robert Indiana became a leading figure of this movement along with Andy Warhol.  Indiana made  many paintings and sculptures of Pop art with short words and numbers such as EAT/DIE , ERR, HUG LOVE etc. during 1960s.
LOVE became a iconic creation of Indiana , first designed in 1964, for a Christmas card of The Museum of Modern Art. In 1973 United States postal service used this image in postage stamp on the occasion of Valentine ’s Day. It was priced 8-cent, sold 300 million copies and marked as the best selling stamp in world history. This “LOVE” letters’ sculptural version is  so popular that it debuted in major cities of world -  such as Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, New Orleans, Vancouver, Lisbon, Jerusalem, Tokyo, Singapore etc.
Indiana expressed his political thought in his art-work. In his  Confederacy series, he was vocal against racial injustice and violence; shouted for justice and civil rights of workers and African Americans through his painting.
 He also created series of painting with literary texts taken from American renowned authors, namely Walt Whitman, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and Herman Melville.
He paid homage to predecessors through his art-work. He made some paintings after great works of three great artists of 20th century - Joseph Stella, Marsden, Hartley and Charles Demuth .
Though Indiana was one of the central figures of Pop art, regarding intimacy ,personality and   style, he  was exceptional and extra-ordinary. He was more perfectionist, more sincere, and not crazy for fame. His bright and brilliant color, shape and symbol  of his works come out from the episode of his personal  life .
John Wilmerding, renowned art historian, defined Indiana’s contribution as: “His art is very much an expression of the American  folk tradition – of its crudeness and practicality”.
Robert Clark renamed himself as Robert Indiana in 1958;  few people know him in his previous name. In 1970, he had replaced his home from New York City to Vinalhaven , a remote lonely island of the coast of Maine , to live and work lonely. But his contribution in American art makes difficult to forget him at all.